ARE WE PREDESTINED OR FREE WILLED ?
To answer this question , I refered to what has been said on it by both Sheikh “ Muhammad Mutawali Al Sharawi “ (Egypt 1911– 1998) the extremely popular & prominent Top Egyptian & Arab Islamic scholar & Sheikh “Muhammad Abduh” (1849-1905) the Head of the Islamic Verdict body (mufti) in Egypt & most Islamic countries in his time & based on this , my answer is as follows ;
This question has risen because there are reasons that support the idea that we are predestined & other reasons supporting the idea that we are free willed . To answer this question, let us first classify the human actions in three kinds . There is an action happening inside me & an action happens to(on) me & an action happens by me . The action happening inside me as the functioning of my body organs as heart beating or digesting or getting sick or an organ failing due a reason beyond my control & this is a predestined act & I have no choice in it , same goes to the actions happening to (on) the human & we are not accountable or questionable about these two kinds of happenings. The third kind is the act which happens by me, which is my free will act & this is the area of human choice & the area of acts to which we are accountable & questionable .
Thus the human is predestined in an area & has a free will & choice in another area & he is only judged about his acts in the free will & choice area . Nevertheless the free will & choice happenings does not mean that human has gone out of ALLAH will & control because it is ALLAH will to give us the free will & choice for which he will judge us
The actions that happen to or on us is expressed in Q9;51
قُل لَّن يُصِيبَنَا إِلَّا مَا كَتَبَ اللَّـهُ لَنَا
translation” Say, “Never will we be struck except by what Allah has decreed for us” ————– . Also bounties & fortunes gifted by Allah to us & the mistakes made by human causing him harm is expressed in Q4;79
مَّا أَصَابَكَ مِنْ حَسَنَةٍ فَمِنَ اللَّـهِ ۖ وَمَا أَصَابَكَ مِن سَيِّئَةٍ فَمِن نَّفْسِكَ
translation “What comes to you of good is from Allah, but what comes to you of evil, [O man], is from yourself”——————.On the overall, any happenings either fortunes or misfortunes is in a way ultimately under Allah control & fate because it is Allah will to give us free choice is expressed in Q4;78
ۚ قُلْ كُلٌّ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّـهِ
translation “Say, “All [things] are from Allah “——— The belief that everything in the world & the fortunes & misfortunes that happen to us is in a way fate & from Allah gives the believers relief & patience & alleviates the burden of misfortunes & worries & help to overcome them