Head of Islamic Verdict Body (Mufti) In Egypt & Most Islamic Countries



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All claims quoting Quran verses -either by some misinformed non muslims or by some muslim violent extremists – saying that Islam incites killing & aggression are completely FALSE claims because they are all snipped off context & cut off & edited verses . If you look at verses context in Quran calling for fighting or killing you will always find it a mere reaction -not initiating or starting – towards  aggression against muslims , whereby Quran entitles & asks the muslims to respond to the attack & fight back in a defense & to cease fighting if their enemy ceases & seek peace

If the claimant says that Islam is a religion of aggression refering to the hadith ,quoting  some hadith that  incite aggression or oppression  , we hereby reply that any hadith  contradictory or non compliant  to Quran- the only book of ALLAH to muslims- is fake , moreover there are other hadiths that instruct forgiveness , peace & non aggression keeping in mind that the ultimate & only book of judgement for Islam is Quran as revealed to the Prophet (pbuh)

See  fighting related Quran verses below as cited by Sheikh “Muhammad Abduh” (1849-1905) Head of the Islamic Official Verdict body (Mufti) in Egypt & most Islamic countries in his time  as a proof that all Quran fighting verses are only defense related

.1) QURAN PROHIBITS AGGRESSION & confines fighting to self  defense only. Q2; 190

وَقَاتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ الَّذِينَ يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ وَلَا تَعْتَدُوا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُعْتَدِينَ وَاقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ ثَقِفْتُمُوهُمْ وَأَخْرِجُوهُم مِّنْ حَيْثُ أَخْرَجُوكُمْ

translation is ” Fight in the way of Allah those who fight you but do not transgress. Indeed. Allah does not like transgressors & (if fighting & killing starts in battle), then kill them wherever you overtake them and expel them from wherever they have expelled you,” ——

2)ENTITLING MUSLIMS TO DEFEND THEMSELVES FROM KILLING IN HARAM MAKKAH ; since muslims are normally not allowed to do any fighting or wiggling or scuffling in Haram Makkah, thus verses allow muslims to defend themselves & kill their attackers when their attackers assault & try killing them in Haram Makkah until they cease the attack . Q 2;193

وَلَا تُقَاتِلُوهُمْ عِندَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ حَتَّىٰ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ فِيهِ ۖ فَإِن قَاتَلُوكُمْ فَاقْتُلُوهُمْ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ جَزَاءُ الْكَافِرِينَ ﴿١٩١﴾ فَإِنِ انتَهَوْا فَإِنَّ اللَّـهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ ﴿١٩٢﴾ وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّىٰ لَا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ وَيَكُونَ الدِّينُ لِلَّـهِ ۖ فَإِنِ انتَهَوْا فَلَا عُدْوَانَ إِلَّا عَلَى الظَّالِمِينَ

translation is “And do not fight them at al-Masjid al- Haram until they fight you there. But if they fight you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers And if they cease, then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful, Fight them until there is no fitnah and until religion is for Allah. But if they cease, then there is to be no aggression except against the oppressors”• ———-

3)QURAN INSTRUCTS JUSTICE& PARITY IN THE DEFENSE & RETRIBUTION , thus commanded Muslims to return the assault by only an equivalent assault & not beyond this , so if someone pushes you or hit you , then you only push or hit him in equivalence & no more .. Q 2; 194

“فَمَنِ اعْتَدَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ فَاعْتَدُوا عَلَيْهِ بِمِثْلِ مَا اعْتَدَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ

translation“So whoever has assaulted you, then assault him in the same way that he has assaulted you “ —. Also Quran commanded that Muslims are to cease their defense fighting when their attackers cease, Q 2; 193

“فَإِنِ انتَهَوْا فَلَا عُدْوَانَ إِلَّا عَلَى الظَّالِمِينَ”,

translation is “if they cease, then there is to be no aggression except against the oppressors. ——

4) ABOUT SURA/VERSE 9;20 (AL TAWBA ) which some claim that it commands fighting non muslims Q 9;29 ,

‘ قَاتِلُوا الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّـهِ وَلَا بِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَلَا يُحَرِّمُونَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّـهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَلَا يَدِينُونَ دِينَ الْحَقِّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ حَتَّىٰ يُعْطُوا الْجِزْيَةَ عَن يَدٍ وَهُمْ صَاغِرُونَ

translation is ” Fight those who do not believe in Allah or in the Last Day and who do not consider unlawful what Allah and His Messenger have made unlawful and who do not adopt the religion of truth from those who were given the Scripture until they give the recompense ( jizyah) willingly while they are humbled ” —–

& Q9;14

قَاتِلُوهُمْ يُعَذِّبْهُمُ اللَّـهُ بِأَيْدِيكُمْ وَيُخْزِهِمْ وَيَنصُرْكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَيَشْفِ صُدُورَ قَوْمٍ مُّؤْمِنِينَ,

translation “Fight them; Allah will punish them by your hands and will disgrace them and give you victory over them and satisfy the breasts of a believing people——-

Sheikh Muhammad Abduh also answered that it commanded this in a specific case when the  muslim enemies started the aggression , dishonored their pact with the Muslims taking advantage of the four haram months during which muslims are banned to fight & before that tried to expel the prophet   , so ALLAH warned those muslim enemies that they will be fought after the four months elapse & instructed the Muslims to fight them then but only until they adhere to their pact once more as shown in same Q 9; 7

فَمَا اسْتَقَامُوا لَكُمْ فَاسْتَقِيمُوا لَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُتَّقِينَ

translation is “So as long as they are upright toward you, be upright toward them.” —— & Q9;3

فَإِن تُبْتُمْ فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ

translation “ So if you repent, that is best for you”——–because Quran stated fighting them only after they dishonored their pact Q9; 13

“أَلَا تُقَاتِلُونَ قَوْمًا نَّكَثُوا أَيْمَانَهُمْ وَهَمُّوا بِإِخْرَاجِ الرَّسُولِ وَهُم بَدَءُوكُمْ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ,

translation is “Would you not fight a people who broke their oaths and determined to expel the Messenger, and they had begun [the attack upon] you the first time?”—– In the same sura ALLAH instructs prophet whose nature was mercy & leniency to stand steadfastly & harshly against the hypocrites & flip flops & the kuffar so as they repent & be deterred from repeating this act again , see Q9;73

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ جَاهِدِ الْكُفَّارَ وَالْمُنَافِقِينَ وَاغْلُظْ عَلَيْهِمْ

translation is “O Prophet, strive back against the kuffar and the hypocrites and be harsh upon them”——   & this stance is only until they cease aggression & repent , otherwise they will be punished by   ALLAH in herelife & afterlife , see Q9;74

فَإِن يَتُوبُوا يَكُ خَيْرًا لَّهُمْ ۖ وَإِن يَتَوَلَّوْا يُعَذِّبْهُمُ اللَّـهُ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ

translation” So if they repent, it is better for them; but if they turn away, Allah will punish them with a painful punishment in this world and the Hereafter”—-

5 ) RE SURA/VERSE( 4;89) ,” ALNISAA “, in which there is a verse mentioning killing of hypocrites, lurking within the muslim community during the war time & claiming to be muslims whilst they were actually Kuffar ( infidels)  & spying on muslims for the interest of their enemies & awaiting the moment when the muslim enemies may win so as to join them & turn over against muslims , thus the muslims got divided into two groups about how to handle these hypocrites , one group saying that these hypocrites could still be used against infidels , & the second muslim group saw that they should be punished , herein the Quran resolved this issue & gave these hypocrites a chance to repent & immigrate with muslims to prove their loyalty or leave the muslim community & seek refuge with other non muslims who are in a peace pact with muslims or declare peace & declare that they will not fight muslims , thereby the muslims should not fight them , otherwise they (the hypocrites) will be punished for their espionage by killing , & death penalty is normally the espionage penalty during war time even until nowadays see Q4; 88-90

“فَمَا لَكُمْ فِي الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِئَتَيْنِ وَاللَّـهُ أَرْكَسَهُم بِمَا كَسَبُوا ۚ أَتُرِيدُونَ أَن تَهْدُوا مَنْ أَضَلَّ اللَّـهُ ۖ وَمَن يُضْلِلِ اللَّـهُ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُ سَبِيلًا ﴿٨٨﴾ وَدُّوا لَوْ تَكْفُرُونَ كَمَا كَفَرُوا فَتَكُونُونَ سَوَاءً ۖ فَلَا تَتَّخِذُوا مِنْهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ حَتَّىٰ يُهَاجِرُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ ۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَخُذُوهُمْ وَاقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ وَجَدتُّمُوهُمْ ۖ وَلَا تَتَّخِذُوا مِنْهُمْ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا ﴿٨٩﴾ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ يَصِلُونَ إِلَىٰ قَوْمٍ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُم مِّيثَاقٌ أَوْ جَاءُوكُمْ حَصِرَتْ صُدُورُهُمْ أَن يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ أَوْ يُقَاتِلُوا قَوْمَهُمْ ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّـهُ لَسَلَّطَهُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ فَلَقَاتَلُوكُمْ ۚ فَإِنِ اعْتَزَلُوكُمْ فَلَمْ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ وَأَلْقَوْا إِلَيْكُمُ السَّلَمَ فَمَا جَعَلَ اللَّـهُ لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ سَبِيلًا

translation is “What is [the matter] with you [that you are] two groups concerning the hypocrites, while Allah has made them fall back [into error and disbelief] for what they earned. Do you wish to guide those whom Allah has sent astray? And he whom Allah sends astray – never will you find for him a way [of guidance]. They wish you would disbelieve as they disbelieved so you would be alike. So do not take from among them allies until they emigrate for the cause of Allah. But if they turn away, then seize them and kill them wherever you find them and take not from among them any ally or helper Except for those who take refuge with a people between yourselves and whom is a treaty or those who come to you, their hearts strained at [the prospect of] fighting you or fighting their own people. And if Allah had willed, He could have given them power over you, and they would have fought you. So if they remove themselves from you and do not fight you and offer you peace, then Allah has not made for you a cause [for fighting] against them.”———

6 )RE SURA ALAHZAB , Q33;60-61, where also some claim that it commands killing, well this verse addresses a specific exclusive complex case combining the specific persons who were “espionage hypocrites” in a specific place & time & situation & decision maker, that is “Madinah” at the time of the Prophet in a war time situation, whereby the decision towards them was to be made only by the “Prophet” . These hypocrites were spying & spreading false military& social rumours & other rumours tackling the Prophet & his family & other chaste muslim women so as to frighten& threat the muslims social security & solidarity & shake & fracture the muslim power , thus the Quran verse here gives them a warning first either to cease their espionage acts , otherwise ALLAH will incite the Prophet –who was still lenient with them- to order their deportation from “Madinah”, & thereby not protect them from getting killed nor punish their killer ( note that espionage penalty during wartime until nowadays is usually death penalty in any country ) , now see the versesQ33;61

لَّئِن لَّمْ يَنتَهِ الْمُنَافِقُونَ وَالَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ وَالْمُرْجِفُونَ فِي الْمَدِينَةِ لَنُغْرِيَنَّكَ بِهِمْ ثُمَّ لَا يُجَاوِرُونَكَ فِيهَا إِلَّا قَلِيلًا ﴿٦٠﴾ مَّلْعُونِينَ ۖ أَيْنَمَا ثُقِفُوا أُخِذُوا وَقُتِّلُوا تَقْتِيلًا

translation “ If the hypocrites and those in whose hearts is disease and those who spread shaking /quake rumors in Al-Madinah do not cease, We will surely incite you against them; then they will not remain your neighbors therein except for a little. Accursed wherever they are found, [being] seized and massacred completely.”———-

7)RE SURA” AL ANFAL Q 8;38-39

وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّىٰ لَا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ وَيَكُونَ الدِّينُ كُلُّهُ لِلَّـهِ ۚ فَإِنِ انتَهَوْا فَإِنَّ اللَّـهَ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ

Translation “And fight them until there is no fitnah and [until] the all the religion (in Haram Makah) ,is for Allah”—-, this verse is in sura Al Anfal (battle booty) , & it is talking about a battle case & booty& giving patience & enthusiasm to muslims during battle & still this battle is only for defense & until the kuffar cease , see the context

قُل لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا إِن يَنتَهُوا يُغْفَرْ لَهُم مَّا قَدْ سَلَفَ وَإِن يَعُودُوا فَقَدْ مَضَتْ سُنَّتُ الْأَوَّلِينَ ﴿٣٨﴾ وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّىٰ لَا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ وَيَكُونَ الدِّينُ كُلُّهُ لِلَّـهِ ۚ فَإِنِ انتَهَوْا فَإِنَّ اللَّـهَ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ

translation” Say to those who have disbelieved [that] if they cease, what has previously occurred will be forgiven for them. But if they return [to hostility] – then the precedent of the former [rebellious] peoples has already taken place.And fight them until there is no fitnah and [until] the religion all the religion (in Haram Makah),is for Allah. And if they cease – then indeed, Allah is Seeing of what they do.”———-

And this fighting was ordered to the muslims only after the kuffar prevented the muslims from going to Haram Makah & plotted killing the Prophet ,Q8;30

وَإِذْ يَمْكُرُ بِكَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لِيُثْبِتُوكَ أَوْ يَقْتُلُوكَ أَوْ يُخْرِجُوكَ

translation “And [remember, O Muhammad], when those who disbelieved plotted against you to restrain you or kill you or evict you [from Makkah——–

8;34 وَهُمْ يَصُدُّونَ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ

translation” they obstruct & prevent [people] from al-Masjid al- Haram

8 –RE SURA Muhammad Q47 ;4 , this also talks about the kuffar who prevented muslims from their belief right & praying & tortured them & launched a war at them , thus this verse incites fighting during the war only & until the war ends as seen in its context here Q47;1

الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَصَدُّوا عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ

translation “Those who disbelieve and avert [people] from the way of Allah”——


فَإِذَا لَقِيتُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَضَرْبَ الرِّقَابِ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا أَثْخَنتُمُوهُمْ فَشُدُّوا الْوَثَاقَ فَإِمَّا مَنًّا بَعْدُ وَإِمَّا فِدَاءً حَتَّىٰ تَضَعَ الْحَرْبُ أَوْزَارَهَا

translation” So when you meet those who disbelieve [in battle], strike [their] necks until you fully weaken their force, then secure their bonds (capture them) them, and either confer favor (release them without return) or ransom [them] until the war lays down its burdens. —–

9)      QURAN PROTECTS BELIEF FREEDOM& does not allow any fighting or oppression aiming to coerce non muslims to enter Islam ,Q 2; 256

“لَا إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ

translation is “no compulsion in the religion.” —

10)   QURAN ENCOURAGES MUSLIMS TO MAINTAIN GOOD & FAIR RELATIONS WITH NON-MUSLIMS who do not fight Muslims in their religion or expel them from their homes. Quran 60;8

“لَّا يَنْهَاكُمُ اللَّـهُ عَنِ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَلَمْ يُخْرِجُوكُم مِّن دِيَارِكُمْ أَن تَبَرُّوهُمْ وَتُقْسِطُوا إِلَيْهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ”

The translation is “Allah does not forbid you from those who do not fight you because of religion and do not expel you from your homes – from being righteous toward them and acting justly toward them. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly”—–

11)   QURAN CALLS FOR MAINTAINING PEACE in all ways & comprehensively, Quran 2;208

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ادْخُلُوا فِي السِّلْمِ كَافَّةً

translation “O you who have believed, enter into peace completely “—— —And in case an aggression takes place against muslims & their enemy attacks them & if during the war their enemy inclines to peace, then the muslims are instructed to incline to peace also , Q8;61

وَإِن جَنَحُوا لِلسَّلْمِ فَاجْنَحْ لَهَا

translation” And if they incline to peace, then incline to it [also]”—–ALLAH knows that peace can only be secured by a deterring force & power that deters enemies from aggression & attack, thus instructs muslims to be well equipped to deter their enemies & preserve peace Q8;60

وَأَعِدُّوا لَهُم مَّا اسْتَطَعْتُم مِّن قُوَّةٍ وَمِن رِّبَاطِ الْخَيْلِ تُرْهِبُونَ بِهِ عَدُوَّ اللَّـهِ وَعَدُوَّكُمْ وَآخَرِينَ مِن دُونِهِمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَهُمُ اللَّـهُ يَعْلَمُهُمْ translation “And prepare against them whatever you are able of power and of steeds of war(superior arms) by which you may deter/ terrify the enemy of Allah and your enemy and others besides them whom you do not know [but] whom Allah knows”———

12) NOT ALL MUSLIMS ABIDE BY ISLAM PEACE INSTRUCTIONS; I mentioned very clear verses from Quran book of muslims that totally ban aggression & restrict fighting to defense only . Definitely not all muslims abided by this & some have made crimes , but crimes & mistakes by muslims does not mean that Islam instructed so . There has been heinous massacres done by many different people of different faiths under the name of religion . Christians massacred & butchered millions of Christians & others   under the name of Jesus & Cross in mideavel Europe wars & some priests until nowadays sexually abuse children in churches ,does this mean that Jesus has ordered massacres or child sexual abuse , of course not , same if some muslims made crimes , it does not mean that these crimes were instructed by Islam