Head of Islamic Verdict Body (Mufti) In Egypt & Most Islamic Countries



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Sheikh “Muhammad Abduh”(1849-1905) head of Islamic verdict body in Egypt & most Islamic countries in his time wrote on that matter saying

1) Tyranny or autocracy means that a single person can solely take any action towards the population as per his pure will either these actions were right & just or not & this type of behavior is not allowed in Islam.

The sharia & laws by themselves do not control the ruler since they are merely written texts , this is whyAllah enacted that there should be  a group of people selected  by the population & representing them & this group needs to be capable &  aware & authorized to enacting & legislating the laws that are in the peoples interest & welfare  & good this group should have power to control the ruler/government  & correct him when he deviates from the laws, & this group is similar to what is  called “parliament” in modern politics   . Allah says in Q 3;104

وَلْتَكُن مِّنكُمْ أُمَّةٌ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى الْخَيْرِ وَيَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ ۚ وَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ

translation “And let there be [arising] from you a nation(group) inviting to [all that is] good, enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong, and those will be the successful.”——— And the assignment of this group that represents the poulation in this matter is a must “fardh” in Islam & this group enacts legislations & controls the ruler & government actions & sets up the structure to enforce the law in the entire nation . It is ALLAH command that the rulers should consider & respect the opinions & views of their nationals Q 3;159

وَشَاوِرْهُمْ فِي الْأَمْرِ

translation ‘consult with them & consider & take into account their opinion” ———-  Q42;38

وَأَمْرُهُمْ شُورَىٰ بَيْنَهُمْ

translation “ and whose affairs is [determined by] consultation among themselves’—–.

2) The word “Shoura” in Arabic does not have an exact English synonym , but it means more than just consultation but a debate of opinions , deliberations & discussions & voting so as the best/optimium decision can be taken & determined through this collective practice & this is very similar to the practice in modern parliaments under the democratic system. The shara’a الشرع (Allah legislation) made the “shoura” mandatory & that any ruler or regime must apply it , so ALLAH set the principal & gave us the discretion to configure which way this “shoura” can be practiced so as we can develop & make a system that best suits our interests & needs & establishes justice , thus if we deem that any kind of system under any political name will establish justice in the nation , then thereby –wherever justice is- is the sharia “Allah legislation” & religion & decree.It is a historical fact that the Prophet & his companions used to have much discussions & deliberations when it came to war or any of the nation interests or matters

3) As seen the shoura  is a mandatory in Islam & a must that should be followed  & for implementing it in our society & nation , then there needs to be a group assigned to discuss & consider & legislate for the nation interests & welfare & watching & controlling the government performance  in accordance to set laws & regulations . thus I see that the people need to elect from between them a group of representatives who are aware of their needs & status & interests & well educated & up to the job & these representatives are to enact the relevant laws that establish justice & nation benefits taking into account all the population natures & interests & beliefs & habits & fighting corruption & injustice . Then these representative need also enact laws enforcement methods & means , then control the government & nation accordingly

The word “democracy” is composed of two latin words meaning the rule of people , which practically in all democracies take place through people representatives & this is the same “Shoura” concept