Head of Islamic Verdict Body (Mufti) In Egypt & Most Islamic Countries



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  • There are usually debates between different religions (christians ,muslims & jews ) about who will go to paradise & every religion or party may claim that they are the ones who will go to paradise because they are on the right side.

Sheikh Muhammad Abduh (1849-1905) Head of islamic verdict body in Egypt & most islamic countries in his time wrote on this matter citing Quran verses as follows

Quran states that punishment or forgiving is only in hands of Allah & that paradise is reached by the good deeds of the person who believes in GOD regardless if being muslim or Christian or jew

لِّلَّـهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْ‌ضِ ۗ وَإِن تُبْدُوا مَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ أَوْ تُخْفُوهُ يُحَاسِبْكُم بِهِ اللَّـهُ ۖ فَيَغْفِرُ‌ لِمَن يَشَاءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَاءُ ۗ وَاللَّـهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِير 2;284 ٌ‌

Translation”To Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. Whether you show what is within yourselves or conceal it, Allah will bring you to account for it. Then He will forgive whom He wills and punish whom He wills, and Allah is over all things competent”—


لَّيْسَ بِأَمَانِيِّكُمْ وَلَا أَمَانِيِّ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ ۗ مَن يَعْمَلْ سُوءًا يُجْزَ بِهِ وَلَا يَجِدْ لَهُ مِن دُونِ اللَّـهِ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا ﴿١٢٣﴾ وَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِنَ الصَّالِحَاتِ مِن ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنثَىٰ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّة

Translation “Paradise is not [obtained] by your (muslims) wishful thinking nor by that of the People of the Scripture. Whoever does a wrong will be recompensed for it, and he will not find besides Allah a protector or a helper. And whoever does righteous deeds, whether male or female, while being a believer – those will enter Paradise”—–

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَالَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالنَّصَارَىٰ وَالصَّابِئِينَ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّـهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَلَهُمْ (2;62)

أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

Translation” Indeed, those who believed and those Jews and Christians and Sabeans those who believed in Allah and the Last Day and did righteousness – will have their reward with their Lord, and no fear will there be concerning them, nor will they grieve”— (3;115)

لَيْسُوا سَوَاءً ۗ مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ أُمَّةٌ قَائِمَةٌ يَتْلُونَ آيَاتِ اللَّـهِ آنَاءَ اللَّيْلِ وَهُمْ يَسْجُدُونَ ﴿١١٣﴾ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّـهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَيَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَيُسَارِعُونَ فِي الْخَيْرَاتِ وَأُولَـٰئِكَ مِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ ﴿١١٤﴾ وَمَا يَفْعَلُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَلَن يُكْفَرُوهُ ۗ وَاللَّـهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالْمُتَّقِينَ

translation “They are not [all] the same; among the People of the Scripture is a community standing [in obedience], reciting the verses of Allah during periods of the night and prostrating [in prayer].. They believe in Allah and the Last Day, and they enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and hasten to good deeds. And those are among the righteous And whatever good they do – never will it be removed from them. And Allah is Knowing of the righteous.”—

On the overall , everyone regardless of his belief or disbelief will be judged on the dooms day by ALLAH the most just & most merciful & everyone will be rewarded for his good or bad acts

فَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْرًا يَرَهُ ﴿٧﴾ وَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ شَرًّا يَرَهُ- 99;8

translation is “So whoever does an atom’s weight of good will see it And whoever does an atom’s weight of evil will see it”—-

The Sheikh cited the opinion of Imam Ghazali  regarding  the peoples situation categorization  towards  prophet Muhammad message which can  can categorized as follows;

1.Those who were not at all informed about the message of Islam & these are definitely NOT punished for their disbelief in compliance with Quran 17;15

“وَمَا كُنَّا مُعَذِّبِينَ حَتَّىٰ نَبْعَثَ رَسُولًا

“translation “And never would We punish until We sent a messenger.”—-

2.Those who were informed but in a wrong or marred or incomplete way that is not sufficient to let the listener consider it seriously & those fall under the first category of NOT punishable

3. Those who were properly & duly & correctly informed but refused to listen or consider either due to their intransigence or arrogance or negligence & those are the blameworthy ones who will be punished & only Allah will decide if they really received his message in a fully proper & convincing way but they arrogantly refuted it or not & the trial will be by the most just the most merciful & no one will be oppressed or misjudged